How to Name a Protoplanet


first_imgPallas has long been classified as an asteroid, but all of a sudden in the news media, everyone is calling it a protoplanet.  How did it get promoted?    The picture being painted of asteroid 2 Pallas is that of a planetary building block that failed in its attempt to grow into another real planet.  Space.com called it a “planet wannabee.”  BBC News called it a “Peter Pan rock” that wouldn’t grow up.  And PhysOrg announced confidently, “Study of first high-resolution images of Pallas confirms asteroid is actually a protoplanet.”  That was the occasion; Hubble Space Telescope pictures of Pallas have been organized into a 3-D representation that shows the object is almost spherical.  Spectral data show hydrated minerals that might indicate the presence of water ice in its past.    On a related topic, New Scientist reported that studies of another asteroid, 24 Themis, reveal the possibility of water ice – a surprise, because the ice should be evaporating at rate of a meter a year.  Looking for a way to explain that, scientists think it may be leftover ice from a parent body that broke up.  The article turned that bad news into good news: a collision suggests that Earth might have received its ocean water from a stray ice-endowed asteroid or comet.    The BBC article explained the thinking behind the “Peter Pan” designation for Pallas.  “Theory holds that planets grow from aggregations of the dust and rock found circling new-born stars.  Collisions between clumps of material produce progressively bigger objects.”Question.  Why must our minds be forced into the bottom-up picture when interpreting images of space objects?  While it is true that objects of a certain mass can attract other objects and continue to grow, it is not true, despite the BBC claim, that dust and rock will aggregate into protoplanets.  And collisions are more likely to disrupt and fragment bodies than make them grow (think, for example of the recent discovery of the Phoebe Ring around Saturn: 10/07/2009, and what New Scientist admitted about Themis).  Why is it that the news media force these thought patterns on their readers with suggestive headlines and one-sided presentations?  Did they interview Pallas and ask it, “Tell us, why did you decide to stay an adolescent, and not grow up into an adult planet?”    Let’s think out of the box.  Think top-down.  There was a set of original planets, moons and bodies operating as a well-crafted system.  Since then, they have been perturbing each other, with collisions forming numerous craters.  Some collisions were violent enough to disrupt bodies into asteroids.  Others have been colliding and eroding to form planetary rings.  The top-down view has an advantage: it fits one of the best-known laws of science: the second law of thermodynamics.    With this view, we can change the terminology in the news reports.  Pallas is no longer to be seen as a planet wannabee.  It’s a casualty of the battlefield.  It isn’t a building block, but wreckage.  It’s not a protoplanet; it’s a post-planet.  It isn’t Peter Pan; it’s the Born Loser.(Visited 7 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more

South Africa teams up with Mara Mentor


first_img4 June 2015A tangible outcome of the first day of the World Economic Forum (WEF) on Africa was an agreement that the National Youth Development Agency would partner with the Mara Foundation to run the online mentorship scheme, Mara Mentor.The WEF on Africa is taking place in Cape Town. It ends on 5 June.The agreement was made with the founder and chairperson of the Mara Foundation, Ashish Thakkar, who spoke to President Jacob Zuma on the sidelines of the WEF on Africa about the innovative Mara Mentor online Mentoring Platform. It will provide mentorships to young South African entrepreneurs.The mentoring platform is an initiative of Brand South Africa, which initially linked up the foundation with The Presidency at the WEF in Davos, Switzerland, in January. It will be officially launched on 16 June, Youth Day, and will offer mentorships over a web platform as well as on mobile applications.Young people will be able to ask business leaders questions and seek advice on business issues.“Top business leaders in South Africa, including chairpersons and chief executives of companies, are already being asked to sign up as mentors for the South African youth to be able to provide them with support. The youth will be able to register as mentees at one of [the National Youth Development Agency’s] 14 offices countrywide,” said The Presidency.Mara Mentor has been successfully launched in six African countries to date. The e- platform has over 600 000 active entrepreneurs across 30 African countries with whom young people can interact.Brand South Africa chairperson Chichi Maponya said the programme was part of the agency’s initiative of not only promoting South Africa as an attractive business destination but also finding opportunities for socio-economic development for the country abroad.“We believe that it has the potential to empower thousands of young people who want to start up businesses or who are already in business. It also provides an opportunity for business leaders in the country to plough back by supporting youth development and empowerment.”Day twoSouth Africa is participating in a range of programmes at the WEF on Africa today, the second day of gathering.Water and Sanitation Minister Nomvula Mokonyane is participating in a session on The Future of Water, while Tourism Minister Derick Hanekom is taking part in a session on Unlocking Africa. Mineral Resources Minister Ngoako Ramathlodi is participating in a session focusing on mining in Africa. The 25th WEF on Africa opened yesterday, with the theme “Then and now: reimagining Africa’s future”.Team South Africa was well represented on the first day of WEF Africa and emphasised that South Africa was open for business on all platforms, according to acting cabinet spokesperson Phumla Williams. The day began with Minister in the Presidency Minister Radebe participating, together with Ghanaian minister of foreign affairs Hanna Tetteh, in an interactive discussion on how competitive African nation brands could contribute to advancing the African Union’s Agenda 2063.“Both ministers and the participants at large concluded the discussions saying that the time has come for African countries to implement policies which will contribute to changing the socio-economic conditions on our continent. There was also a resounding call that Agenda 2063 must be brought to life through the implementation of national policies that support the pillars for growth and development,” said Williams.These included social issues like health, education and food security as well as infrastructure development. South Africa was committed to infrastructure development on the continent, and the country held the chairmanship of the African Union’s Programme for Infrastructure Development for Africa.It was focused on facilitating road, rail and air connectivity between countries on the continent, which would contribute to Africa’s integration, ease movement of people, goods and services throughout the continent as well as the continent’s ability to attract inward flows of investment.South Africa also hosted a welcome reception for WEF delegates, at which Hanekom reiterated that the country was open to all visitors and investors, while offering a range of diverse experiences that would cater for all visitors.President Jacob Zuma hosted a meeting of the Business Interaction Group, at which he said his government was committed to creating an enabling legislative and policy environment for business to create jobs and grow the economy.“As with similar engagements in the run up to WEF Africa 2015, there has been a willingness of both government and the private sector to work together to drive South Africa’s growth and development,” Williams said.Source: SAnews.govlast_img read more

A good weed management program often starts in the fall


first_imgShare Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest The 2016 harvest season is underway across much of the Corn Belt. Getting harvest completed is top of mind, but growers should also be considering fall herbicide applications, since a good weed management program often starts in the fall.With the increase in weed resistant problems, a spring application is often not enough to control weeds, especially marestail. A fall herbicide application can be a great way to control winter annuals that emerge after harvest, especially in no-till fields and fields with a history of marestail. Rains late in August and so far in September could end up giving us more winter annuals than normal, making an application this fall potentially more beneficial. Typically an application is best from after harvest until around Thanksgiving. An application can be successful past Thanksgiving, but once we have a hard freeze many weeds are less susceptible to herbicide.A typical fall burndown mix that provides good control is combination of glyphosate with 2, 4-D and/or dicamba that is applied during the time listed above. This will provide good control of winter annuals and minimize the chance that these weeds will produce seed. Wet springs can prevent a timely application, so doing an application in the fall allows us to get a jump start on weed control while weeds are small and easy to control.Many people ask if a residual in the fall is a necessary component. There are a couple of ways to look at making the decision to use a residual or not. First of all, the likelihood of a residual giving much control into the spring is somewhat slim. If we have a more mild winter with an early spring, the chances of a residual making it through is extremely slim causing you to need to spend money on a residual again in the fall. The time when a residual in the fall could last is when we have a cold harsh winter allowing the residual to persist and provide us with control into the spring. Rather than try to outguess Mother Nature, most of the time it is best to wait and spend money on a residual in the spring. However, if you have been struggling to gain control on marestail, and burndown in the fall without a residual has not worked in the past, a low cost residual component can be added.It is easy to overthink a fall herbicide program. Often times the simple application of glyphosate and 2, 4-D and/or dicamba can become the easiest and most cost effective way to gain control. A good program is both cheap and effective. The recommendation is to spend less than 25% of your overall herbicide budget for the crop on a fall application. Most of the time this can be accomplished spending less than that.No matter what you decide to do in terms of a fall herbicide application, keep in mind that our main goal is controlling those weeds that have already emerged.last_img read more

This “Pocket Film School” Teaches Everything You’d Learn in Film School


first_imgLet’s examine why Pocket Film School is a great tool for your career by giving you real-world training for professional film and video production.Take my advice as a warning, please. As a graduate of a four-year Radio, TV, Film program, film school is kind of a mixed bag. I wouldn’t say it’s worthless or a scam, but I’d be the first to advise anyone in the process of deciding whether they want to attend one (and pony up the student loans to do so) to consider the alternatives first.And man, it seems the alternatives keep getting better by the day. Not only do you have an almost endless supply of film blogs, YouTube channels, and other in-depth online resources, you also have many of these new (and very poignant) digital platforms that pretty much give you all the coursework, advice, and curriculum you’d get over four years in any film program. (And obviously, at much less of the cost.)And while you can always subscribe to filmmaking resource channels like PremiumBeat or our partner Shutterstock Tutorials on YouTube, or take great insight and inspiration from online series like MasterClass, we got our hands on a beta version of the upcoming Pocket Film School, which is everything it promises.Film school, but in your pocket!What Is Pocket Film School?So, with a mission statement of “education — deconstructed,” the Pocket Film School is really a platform dedicated to making the film school education process simplified, easy to digest, and straight to the point. Every course is designed to be “pocket sized” by limiting episodes of the curriculum to five minutes or less.The Pocket Film School also emphasizes collaboration-oriented education focusing on working with teams and others in a fully collaborative environment. This is helpful because the majority of your film and video work will be with others — with roles that are becoming more and more loosely defined as the digital filmmaking landscape makes hybrid skill sets the norm.You’ll also get a solid primer in the basic fundamentals of filmmaking. Courses cover from the basic lingo and terms and roles on the film set, to how contracts are usually drawn, the relevant paperwork you’ll need to be familiar with, to the basics of on-set etiquette. Basically, you’re learning how to be a smart and savvy professional from your very first shoot onward.The Course CurriculumWhat Pocket Film School Has to OfferThis is where the Pocket Film School gets pretty cool. As I can remember from film school, we had some basic overarching courses, then a few that let you really hunker down into the nuts and bolts of a certain part of the film production process. However, it never quite felt like you got a chance to learn the process as a whole — especially not in-depth.With the Pocket Film School’s course curriculum, I was pleased to see that the coursework covers everything from the initial writing and script development parts of pre-production, through all matters of production, and deep into the post process. It even  explores what to do with your film once it’s done.Pricing OptionsPayment OptionsOnce you sign up, the platform is nicely self-contained, You can watch each lesson/episode on the site, where your status will be tracked and your coursework can stay updated. As far as pricing goes, the Pocket Film School is available for either four payments of $150 per month, or, in promoting their first flagship course offering, one payment of $497.99. You can purchase the course directly on their site.After going through a beta version of the course, I can say that the coursework looks quite comprehensive. If you dive into it, it should take anywhere from an intensive couple of weeks to a couple of months to complete. Overall Pocket Film School offers plenty of information, assignments, and real world advice that’ll help you reach the next level as a filmmaker.For more filmmaking advice and resources, check out some other articles here!Premiere Pro Quick Tip: How to Create ProxiesA Guide on Soliciting Feedback and Review for Film DraftsTop Alternatives to Premiere Pro in 2019 — Free and PaidThe 5 Biggest Issues When Shooting Low-Budget Short Films3 Unusual Camera Angles to Liven up Your Dialogue Sceneslast_img read more

Seeking Exclusivity


first_imgA question from Robert about how to ask for exclusivity when your client doesn’t want to put all their eggs in one basket. The question is about the pharmaceutical industry, but with implications for other industries.last_img